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      電網污染和治理、無源濾波和有源濾波

      瀏覽次數:2397 次  發布時間:2018-07-05  

          電力電子新聞綜述(十七)通過一個實例引入電網被高次諧波污染的概念。簡單扼要介紹了它的發生、危害和治理方法。在上次討論的基礎上,本文匯集了幾篇典型報道的要點,再作重點介紹。

          諧波治理就像環境污染治理一樣。舉例說明,化工企業大量產生有害化工物質,不經治理排放到河道,使河道中水嚴重污染。該化工企業無奈又要使用河道中的水,但是不經處理,河道中的水是無法使用的。這是客觀存在的惡性循環。

          先進電子設備,諸如電力電子變頻、可控硅整流設備、數字通訊設備、電氣鐵路設備、各類UPS、大功率半導體開關器件、開關電源等,還有電熔煉設備、電化學設備、礦井起重設備、電氣機車等都屬于非線性電源負荷。這些設備使得諧波電流不斷注入電網,電力系統波形嚴重畸變。

          用電企業無奈用被污染的電源。這也是惡性循環!于是出現了自己污染必須自己治理的各項政策。


      (一)有哪些治理電網諧波的政策?

           治理電網諧波是國家的一項既定政策。開發這方面的產品,既是當務之急,也是企業發展的一條重要途徑。這是既可利國又可為企業創利的雙贏政策。

      1,為了確保提供合格的電能質量,國家及有關主管部門相繼頒發了一系列標準、條例和規定,以保證電網和用電設備免受諧波的危害。

      2,公用電網的電能質量標準

          電網是統一的整體,所有并網的發、送、供電設備和用電設備都必須接受電網諧波技術監督管理。執行公用電網諧波國家標準的目的是把公用電網中的諧波量控制在允許范圍內,保證供電電能質量,防止諧波對電網和用戶的各種電氣設備和用電器具造成危害,保持安全經濟運行。公用電網的諧波應象治理環境污染一樣重視公用電網諧波污染的治理。諧波治理要依法進行,這個“法”就是《中華人民共和國電力法》和《電能質量-公用電網諧波》國家標準,任何單位和部門都必須認真貫徹執行。

           然而在公用電網諧波方面國內國際只針對高次諧波有相應的標準,最高也只是21次諧波,而高頻高次諧波這一塊還沒有相應的標準。

      (二)諧波的危

           諧波增加了輸配電系統和用電設備的附加損耗——鐵損(包括磁滯損耗和渦流損耗)和銅損,使設備過熱,降低設備的效率和利用率。由于諧波電流的頻率為基波頻率的整數倍,高頻電流流過導體時,因集膚效應的作用,導致導體對諧波電流的有效電抗增加,從而增加了設備的功率損耗、電能損耗,使導體的發熱嚴重。具體說來,以上現象存在于以下環節:負載電機、變壓器、輸電線路、電力電子設備、電力電容器(包括補償電容)。


      (三) 諧波的治

           治理諧波問題,抑制輻射干擾和供電系統干擾,可采取屏蔽,隔離,接地及濾波等技術手段。濾波裝置又分無源濾波裝置或有源濾波裝


      (四)無源濾波和有源濾

          消除諧波的設備要求頻譜范圍廣、能力要大、響應時間要快而且使用方便、可靠、壽命長等。

      1,無源濾波裝

           無源濾波裝置出現最早,因其結構簡單、投資少、運行可靠性較高以及運行費用較低,至今仍是諧波抑制的主要手段。LC濾波裝置是由濾波電容器、電抗器和電阻器適當組合而成,它包括三種基本形式:串聯濾波、并聯濾波和低通濾波串并混合)。其中串聯濾波主要適用于三次諧波的治理;低通濾波主要適用于高次諧波的治理;并聯濾波是與諧波源并聯,除具有濾波作用外,還有無功補償的作用。這種方法的主要缺點是補償特性受電網阻抗和運行狀態影響,無源濾波裝置不能受控,它只能補償固定頻率的諧波。如果過濾不同的諧波頻率,則要分別用不同的濾波裝置。隨著時間的推移,配件老化或電網負載的變動,諧振頻率會發生改變,濾波效果下降,易和系統發生并聯諧振,導致諧波放大,使LC濾波裝置過載甚至燒毀。目前,無源濾波裝置還是實際應用最多、效果較好、價格較低的治理諧波的較好方案。

      2,有源電力濾波裝置

         有源電力濾波裝置是一種用于動態抑制諧波、補償無功的新型電力電子裝置,這種濾波裝置能對頻率和幅值都變化的諧波進行跟蹤補償,且補償特性不受電網阻抗的影響。

          有源濾波裝置根據動態補償諧波的原理,運用電力電子技術和計算機技術,快速跟蹤諧波源產生的諧波頻率、相位和幅值,由裝置向電網注入與原有諧波電流幅值相等、相位相同、方向相反的電流,使流入電源的總諧波電流為零,其特性不受系統的影響,無諧波放大的危險,能同時濾除2至25次諧波,因而倍受關注。

           有源電力濾波裝置系統主要由指令電流檢測電路和補償電流發生電路這兩大部分組成。指令電流檢測電路的功能主要是從負載電流中分離出諧波電流分量和基波無功電流,然后將其反極性變化后發出補償電流的指令信號。電流跟蹤控制電路的功能是根據主電路產生的補償電流,計算出主電路各開關器件的觸發脈沖,此脈沖經驅動電路后作用于主電路。這樣電源電流中只含有基波的有功分量,從而達到消除諧波與進行無功補償的目的。根據同樣的原理,電力有源濾波裝置還能對不對稱三相電路的負序電流分量進行補償。

          有源濾波裝置獲得比無源濾波裝置更好的治理效果,已逐漸成為諧波治理的重要技術手段和今后諧波治理領域的發展方向。

      3,混合型有源濾波裝

          目前,出現了無源濾波裝置(LC濾波裝置)與有源濾波裝置互補混合使用的方式,充分發揮LC濾波裝置結構簡單、易實現,有源電力濾波裝置補償性能好的優點,兩者結合使用,既可補償無功,又可補償諧波??煽朔o源濾波易受電網參數影響及產生諧振的缺點,使整個系統獲得良好的性能。


      結論:

          有源濾波裝置具有同時消除多次諧波(2-25次)電流的能力,能實時、自動跟蹤控制,既能高效消除諧波,又能動態補償無功,改善三相不平衡度。而且不受系統運行方式影響,不會產生諧波諧振,對電力系統適應能力強。

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